Lack of Capacity
Our Bay Area Probate Litigation Attorneys Bring Legal Challenges on Behalf of Families
It is a heartbreaking situation when a loved one passes away and family members do not agree on whether the will or trust is valid. People can have differing opinions as to the deceased person’s state of mind when he or she executed the will or trust. This can then lead to interfamilial fighting and probate court litigation. Our San Francisco probate litigation attorneys specialize in challenging and defending wills or trusts where the deceased person may have lacked the capacity to execute a valid will or trust.
Lack of Capacity to Execute a Valid Will or Trust
To be a legally enforceable will or trust, the testator (the person who signs the will or trust) must have the mental capacity to understand the following three components:
- The nature of the documents, which is that they distribute property to named beneficiaries upon the death of the testator, and
- The extent and approximate amount of property owned by the testator, and
- The relationships between the testator and family members or other beneficiaries
To execute a valid trust, the settlor (the person who creates a trust) must have the present intent to create a trust, deliver property to the trust, and name beneficiaries and a trustee. The settlor’s purpose in creating the trust must also be legal. Additionally, it cannot be contrary to public policy.
A person does not have to be mentally ill or incompetent to lack the capacity to execute a valid will or trust. Elderly or ill individuals may have some days where they are completely lucid. Other times, they may be confused or suffered from delusions or hallucinations. The only requirement is that on the date and time the deceased executed the will or trust, all elements of testamentary intent were present.
Proving lack of capacity to invalidate a will or trust in probate court can be a complicated matter. This is because courts are reluctant to disregard the apparent intent of someone who is no longer alive to testify. The probate court may call upon family members, the drafter of the instrument, as well as expert witnesses, such as doctors and psychiatrists, to determine whether the deceased lacked the requisite mental capacity and intent.
Example of Lack of Capacity or Undue Influence
Often, individuals who lack the mental capacity to execute a valid will are especially susceptible to undue influence by relatives, caretakers or other individuals. Consider the following common hypothetical:
Mary is old and weak. She has periods of mental clarity, and periods of confusion. Donna is her niece who lives nearby. Donna tells Mary that her children who live far away do not really love her, do not visit her, and only are after her money. Donna isolates Mary from others. She keeps other from visiting and does not relaying their messages and calls. Then, Donna talks Mary into writing a will or trust leaving Mary’s entire estate to Donna.
Is the will valid? Did Mary lack the capacity to execute a valid will? Did Donna exert undue influence upon her? These are factual questions for a judge or jury. More information is necessary regarding Mary’s mental capacity on the date she executed the will. However, Donna’s behaviors in isolating Mary, not relaying messages and pressuring her, are evidence that Donna exerted undue influence upon Mary.
An Experienced Attorney is Necessary for Contested Wills and Trusts
Many attorneys practice California probate law. However, only an experienced probate litigator is equipped to bring complex legal challenges to a will or trust when objecting based on lack of capacity. Charles Triay is the founder of the Triay Law Office. He has been specializing in contested wills and trusts in probate court for over 30 years. Unlike other law firms, the Triay Law Office gives clients the option of paying attorney fees on an hourly or contingency basis. Please contact our San Francisco probate litigation lawyers to assess your situation. We can help you to determine if an objection based on lack of capacity is the right legal path for your family.